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52 Cardiovascular Disorders

Anatomy and physiology-overview

Cardiac dysrhythmias

  • Normal sinus rhythm
  • Sinus bradycardia
  • Sinus tachycardia
  • Atrial fibrillation

 

 

 

  • Premature Ventricular Contractions

    Bigeminy

 

 

 

COUPLET OR PAIRED PVC’s

 

 

MULTI FOCAL PVC

 

  • Ventricular tachycardia

 

  • Ventricular fibrillation

 

 

Management of dysrhythmias

  • Vagal maneuvers
  • Cardioversion
  • Defibrillation
  • Use of paddle electrodes
  • Automated external defibrillator-AED
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator-ICD

Pacemakers

  • Description
  • Temporary pacemakers
  • Permanent pacemakers

Coronary artery disease

Angina

Myocardial Infarction

Heart failure

Cardiogenic shock

Inflammatory diseases of the heart

  • Pericarditis
  • Myocarditis
  • Endocarditis

Cardiac tamponade

Valvular heart disease

  • Mitral stenosis
  • Mitral insufficiency
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Aortic stenosis
  • aortic insufficiency
  • Tricuspid stenosis
  • Tricuspid insufficiency
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Pulmonary insufficiency

Cardiomyopathy

Vascular disorders

  • Venous thrombosis
  • Venous insufficiency
  • Varicose veins

Arterial disorders

  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Raynaud’s disease
  • Buerger’s disease

Aortic aneurysms

Embolectomy

Vena caval filter and ligation of IVC

Hypertension

Hypertensive crisis

List down and briefly explain the following diagnostic procedures

  • Cardiac enzymes
  • Complete blood count
  • Blood coagulation factors
  • Serum lipids
  • Electrolytes
  • BUN and blood glucose
  • BNP
  • Chest x-ray
  • ECG
  • Holter monitoring
  • Echocardiography
  • Exercise ECG testing(Stress test)
  • Digital subtraction angiography
  • Myocardial nuclear perfusion imaging-MNPI
  • Magnetic resonance imaging-MRI
  • Electrophysiologic studies
  • Electronic beam computer tomography-EBCT
  • Cardiac catheterization

Therapeutic management

  • PTCA
  • Laser assisted angioplasty
  • Coronary artery stents
  • Atherectomy
  • Transmyocardial revascularization
  • Arterial revascularization
  • CABG
  • Heart transplantation
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