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Posts tagged ‘LS – IELTS’


Learning to differentiate these words will make you confident to face listening, writing and reading tests. To have linguistic acumen, one has to be immaculate in the selection of words. This chapter is aimed at raising some doubts in your mind to reflect and to discuss with the learned.

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Thesaurus in English

A good command of synonyms and related words will be a cutting edge for you to excel in the writing test. The words are of intermediate level.

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Impressive Grammatical Structures

Essays need impressive Grammatical Range to attract the reader. Read these as many times as possible to get used to the nuances of English structure. Pay attention to the phrases to the nuances of English structure.

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A shortcut to Grammar

A few terms in Grammar you should be aware of:

Will, Shall:         

Everybody shall die. Shall we come now?

The employees shall be on a monthly basis.

I will do it.

He will do it.

They will not come.  

(Now the recent developments in English allows you to use WILL on most occasions)


I would like to go to America. I would like to tell you something. (Phrases)                        

Would you please do me a favour? Would you mind if I smoke? (Politeness)

If I were a bird, I would fly. (Hypothetical) Gandhiji would argue with Nehru.

He would smoke a lot before his death. (Used to) He told me that he would come (Tense Sequence) I would rather die, than beg


You should keep left. Should I be given a chance, I shall work diligently. (IF)


I have a car. He has a car. They have a car. I had a car. I have had my lunch.

Has, Had:         

I have to get it now. I had to go to Kottayam. I had a haircut.

Do, Does:      

Lal doesn’t know English. Lal and Gopi don’t do Yoga. He does not smoke.


He didn’t go to church. Who doesn’t have a car? Do they practice yoga?


Mammotty may come.


Lal might come. Lal might have come.


I can lift an elephant. Could: I could not help him. Could you please put me to Miss. Mary? Could you please do me a favour? You could do that.            


Let it be like that. To be or not to be is the question. If Veerappan were the P.M., how nice It would have been!


Being a trainer, I forgive you.

It being a holiday let us go for a film.

It is being painted.


Having a car attracts overheads.

Having enough funds, he could sleep well.

Ought to:             

We ought to respect our parents.

Used to:

I used to smoke when I was in the Gulf.


She got married.

He got selected.

I’ve got it repaired.

I am getting lots of proposals.


Bachchan knows how to dance.

I know little Sanskrit.  

The rich have exploited the poor.

Everybody/ Nobody/ Each/Every/ Everyone knows English.

(Agreement of verb with Subject is important in English)


Humble Kevin is quietly leading a simple life in the midst of horrible hooligans,


great plotters, grandiose friends, regressive politicians and silly students.


An apple a day keeps the greedy doctor away.

I am going to the UK.

He is the man.

Hoarding will affect the availability of staple food.

The news is shocking.

Various Structures:

I wish I had a car.

He made me cry.

One of my Friends has gone to Calicut.

I look forward to hearing from you.

First come, first served.

The earlier the better.

It being a holiday, why should I come?


(Little, Few, Less, Seldom, Scarcely and rarely mean not enough.

(They are not totally negative.)

We know little about the origin of the universe.

Little knowledge is dangerous.

I have a little money for you. He hardly knows anything.


Few people attended the meeting.

Few have understood the Theory of lativity.

A few:

A few people attended the meeting.

The few:

The few people who had gathered there have also vanished.


Hardly anybody was there for the gathered there have also vanished.

Hardly anybody was there for the meeting.

Would have:

if I were there, the SI wouldn’t have beaten you.

Should have:

You should have told it to me yesterday.

Could have:

I could have helped you if needed.


Kevin, the innovative Magician, has a passion for novelty.

Gandhi, the renowned advocate of ahimsa, was assassinated.


Watching too much TV is injurious to health.

Eating meat will make you rude.


In the morning, at night, at home, in the long run. To my mind. In the meantime.


Let’s keep our fingers crossed. I am leaving for good. Sachin called it a day.


Let’s have lunch. Walking distance. In dire need. Pay attention. Ride a bike.

Complex Sentences:

She became the leader. Only because her father was assassinated.

As I have no wheels, how can I come for the meeting?

Compound sentences:

India is booming while the poor people are being exploited.

When Veerappan was after money, our bureaucrats are after power and money.

Has been:                    

He has been smoking for five years.

Have been:

I have been teaching English for he last 20 years.

(We have lived here for 20 years. This is correct) I had been working in the Gulf from 1976 to 1996. Gandhi had been assassinated.


I have been working since March, 08.


I have been studying here for 3 months.

He has left for the US.

But for the fact that I am a woman, I should have hit him down.

Reported speech:     

He told me that he would come. I asked him whether he would accompany me.

Correlative Conjunction:                

Both Lal and Sal have come.

Either you go or I will. It is too heavy for me to lift.

The more you eat, the fatter you become.

Transitive Verb:        

Rahul killed a mosquito.

Intransitive verb:

Mr. Birdy died.

Birds fly.


I saw the saw mill.

Ice is not good for eyes.

I saw a sewing machine.

Conditional Clause:  

If were you, I would have scored a 9 band.

If you cook, I will fast.






Conditional tense

Learn the nuances of conditional tense. This tense is not commonly taught in many of our schools and colleges. Learn it to avoid mistakes while using ‘if’ and ‘when’.

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Forms of verbs

Learn the forms of verbs to speak and write well in English.

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Tongue Twisters in English

Start by saying the tongue-twister slowly, then try to speed up. Once you can say a tongue twister through, try to say it twice or three times in a row for a bigger challenge.

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Dark Chocolate on the day of Exam



On the day of your exam, it is recommended to have 150 gms of Dark Chocolate.

There are no scientific evidences to prove your performance after eating a chocolate. However, for ages now our candidates have been able to face the exam with more confidence, sustain the temperature in the exam hall, withstand hunger till the exam gets over, controlled blood pressure and boosted flow of oxygen altogether help candidates do well with their exams.

Dark chocolate is a rich source of antioxidants and minerals, and it generally contains less sugar than milk chocolate. Some research suggests that dark chocolate may help lower the risk of heart disease, reduce inflammation and insulin resistance, and improve brain function.

People who are interested in adding dark chocolate to their diet should keep in mind that it is high in fat and calories, so moderation is key.

Try having a dark chocolate on a typically busy day. See how it influences on you. If you fell good you can have it on the day of the exam.

Disclaimer: Nothing is official about it.

There are many websites and blogs that mention about the benefits of having Dark Chocolates. Read it to know more about it.

Sample Read Aloud

Look at the text below. In 40 seconds, you must read this text aloud as naturally and clearly as possible. You have 40 seconds to read aloud.


  1. Break the text into chunks and pause slightly between each one as you read. Use the punctuation to help you decide where to pause and where each new chunk will begin.
  2. As you read, stress the words that carry important information. This makes it easier to understand what you are saying.
  3. Use rising intonation patterns to show a contrast.
  4. Try to get a word stress right on multi-syllable words. Usually, the stress falls in the syllable before this – Pollution, combustion, Stations.
  5. Look for sense groups, as well as the grammatical structure, to notice which groups of words should be said in one chunk: /to provide individuals with an income / once they stop working/.
  6. Use falling intonation patterns to show that you have finished a point, or come to the end of what you are saying.


  • History rubs shoulders and often overlaps with many other areas of research, from myths and epics to the social sciences, including economics, politics, biography, demography, and much else besides. Some histories are almost pure narratives, while others go in for detailed, tightly-focused analysis of, for example, the parish records of a Cornish village in the 16th century.
  • There are many kinds of pond, but nearly all are small bodies of shallow, stagnant water in which plants with roots can grow. Water movement is slight and temperatures fluctuate widely. The wealth of plants ensures that during daylight hours oxygen is plentiful. However, at night, when photosynthesis no longer takes place, oxygen supplies can fall very low.
  • Before the time of Alexander the great, the only eastern people who could be compared with the Greeks in the fields of science and philosophy were from the Indian sub-continent. However, because so little is known about Indian chronology, it is difficult to tell how much of their science was original and how much was the result of greek influence.
  • While far fewer people these days write letters and therefore have less use for stamps, there are still a few categories of stamp which attract collectors. Stamps in common use for an indefinite period – until the price goes up – are called “definitive” issues, while a more collectible type of stamp is the “commemorative” issue, honouring people, events and anniversaries.
  • In the second quarter of the 19th century, a rapidly growing middle class created a great demand for furniture production. Yet at this stage, while machines were used for certain jobs, such as carved decoration, there was no real mass production. The extra demand was met by numerous woodworkers. Mass production came later and the quality of domestic furniture declined.
  • In the middle ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore,  the symbols not of nations, but of nobility. The design of each flag resembled the “devices” on the noble’s Coat of Arms, and the size of the flag was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.
  • Statistics reflect vital information about the economy, the well being if the population, and the environment. Society relies in statistics being visible, accessible and robust, and on statistically literate people making the best use of the information to determine future action. Statistical literacy, then, is the ability to accurately understand, interpret and evaluate the data that inform these issues.
  • Housing fulfils the basic needs that people have for security, privacy and shelter. While the adequacy of housing is an important component of individual well- being, housing also has great impact in the nation’s economy, with its influence on investment levels, interest rates, building activity and employment.
  • Being physically active benefits people’s health significantly, including reducing the risk if some chronic conditions, helping to control weight, and improving mental health. In recent decades, there has been a decline in physical activity because more people work in office rather than in manual jobs.
  •  Students who wish to take break from their studies will need to put in an application for Leave of Absence. If your application is successful, you will be notified via email. At the end of your Leave of Absence, you must re-enrol at Student Services and in the subjects you intend to study.
  • There are number of tests available which can suggest if a person is telling the truth, but knowing which ones are accurate is not easy. A newly created test is claimed to be the most accurate yet in lie detection. However, questions have been raised about its accuracy and ethics.
  • A student exchange programme complements formal education, while promoting tolerance, maturity and independence – all highly sought after qualities in today’s competitive job market. Living in the host country, not as a tourist or guest but as member of the community, is what makes the experience both challenging and rewarding.
  • Market research is a vital part of the planning of any business. However experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field. If you are thinking of introducing a service to a new ares, it is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.
  • Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by land.
  • When the young artist was asked abut his drawing, he explained that he had started by taking a photograph of himself sitting by a window at home. He then drew his face from the photograph and replaced the buildings which were outside the window with trees. This gave the picture a softer, more artistic background.
  • Humans need to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are most concerning, because of their impact on health, result from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.
  • Clearly, times are changing and while many people are saving for their retirement, many more still need to do so. Most countries have a range of pension schemes that are designed to provide individuals with an income once they stop working. People need to take advantage of these if they are to have sufficient money throughout their retirement years.
  • According to recent research, sunshine and warm weather have a positive effect in our moods. The British Journal of Psychology has published a report in which it claims that anxiety levels fall when temperatures rise, while increased exposure to sunshine makes us think more positively about our lives.
  • Tidal energy, also known as tidal power, is a renewable source of energy and a form of hydropower used to generate electricity from the energy of the tides. Though not currently widely utilised, due to high costs and limited availability, it can be called the energy resource of the future given the current rate of depletion of energy resources.
  • Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.
  • Most countries are affected by labour migration. In many rural places, the traditional extended family has been undermined by the need for family members to migrate to towns as an economic necessity. Migration, therefore, presents a major challenge everywhere to social and economic policy.
  • One of the major factors influencing future home design will be the Probable change in climate, with hotter summers, colder winters, and the possibility of floods. Consequently, houses will be built with better insulation and will also need ways of keeping cool in hot weather, whether that’s air conditioning or more shading of windows.
  • Until fairly recent times, the origin of birds was one of evolution’s great mysteries. This is no longer the case. Fossil evidence from China now conclusively proves that there is an evolutionary link between birds and several types of extinct prehistoric reptiles which lived millions of years ago, or in other words, dinosaurs.
  • Group work is valuable because of the opportunities it provides for students to develop collaboration and communication skills. As an assessments task, it has the potential to pose difficulties in relation to appropriate acknowledgement of authorship of individual group members. These difficulties can be minimised by ensuring that the task is well designed, with the roles of individuals effectively identified.
  • The Italian alphabet has fewer letters in comparison with the English alphabet. Italian does not use the letters J,K,W,X or Y – except in borrowed words. However, young Italians are increasingly using the letter K in words that would be written with C or CH in standard Italian orthography.
  • Summer hill School was regarded with considerable suspicion by the educational establishment. Lesson were optional for pupils at the school, and the government of the school was carried out by a School Council, of which all the pupils and staff were members, with everyone having equal voting rights.
  • This term the University is running a series of workshops for final year students on how to do well in interviews. These sessions will help Participants prepare effectively for – and perform at their best during – later job interviews. The workshop tutors have an excellent record of success in helping students acquire the positions they desire.
  • Tasmania is a large and relatively sparsely populated island off the south coast of Australia. The island is of particular interest to natural scientists, who go there to research the unique wildlife. Tasmania has, for example, twelve species of bird that are not found anywhere else in the world.
  • Honey has traditionally been credited with significant medical powers, and it has played a major part in many folk remedies. But it seems now its efficacy is not just an old wives’ tale. Recent research has shown there is scientific evidence to prove that honey contains elements that prevent bacteria from growing.
  • The College has a fascinating museum dedicated to archaeology and anthropology. It contains information about many of the studies which have been carried out by members of the College over the five hundred years of its existence. There are many unique exhibits brought back from excavations and explorations in all the continents.

These are sample paragraphs taken from authorised PTE practise materials for referencing. Don’t limit your practise with these paragraphs. Have some interest and read a lot of other paragraphs that you may find in magazines, newspapers and wikipedia articles. 

Casper Academy is a PTE coaching center in Vyttila, Kochi. Since 2001. We are available throughout the day. Candidates can opt to attend classes at their convenient time of the day.

Develop your Intonation

Using the right intonation makes the listener very comfortable in understanding the speaker. A rising intonation and a falling intonation are used for different purposes. To use appropriate intonation, at first one has to cut chunks and break a sentence in to two or more half.

The following are the list of areas when you can cut chunks:

. to .

. to ,

, to ,

, to .

Before prepositions

After conjunctions

at other punctuation marks.

The following is a paragraph cut into chunks for you to understand the method easily.

The ‘/’ is used to cut sentences. ‘//’ represent closing of the sentence.

Full stops – Falling Intonation

Contrast ideas – Rising Intonation

Important ideas – Rising Intonation

Adjectives – Rising Intonation

Nouns – Rising Intonation

∏∏Commas – Singing Intonation

Words with more than one syllable – Singing Intonation

Try reading the paragraph above to practise speaking with right intonation. Do similar exercise often with different paragraphs to be good at intonations.


Housing fulfils the basic needs that people have / for security,/ privacy and/ shelter.// While the adequacy of housing is an important component/ of individual well-being,/ housing also has great impact/ in the nation’s economy,/ with its influence/ on investment levels,/ interest rates,/ building activity and/ employment.//


Try and make some questions with the sentences below.

Try and make questions for the sentences given here. It is not that easy. Try it for yourself. Don't forget to get it corrected by an English faculty.

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Is it ok to memorise sample answers?

If you have memorised an answer it is very unlikely that it will actually answer the question directly and this will be another signal to the examiner that something isn’t quite right.

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Sample Speaking Responses

These are some of the sample responses for speaking questions written by experts. However, this response is only one way of approach of the many available approaches. Don't memorise these answers.

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Should I be good at Grammar to excel in International English Exams.

When there are no rules followed a cricketer finds it difficult to play with the team. Because the rules form a common ground to protect the player and ease the learning process for a learner of the game. Similarly, grammar forms a common ground on which a user of the language is able to express himself/herself clearly and the new learner finds it easy to learn the language. Therefore it it necessary to learn the language and its grammar rules immaculately.

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